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We have conducted numerous ethnographic studies (Warr, 2007; Warr & O'Neill, 2006) - a diary study, a field-based observations and lab-based observations of design activities - aimed at building upon our theoretical understanding of creativity (Warr & O'Neill, 2005). From these three studies we elicit a substantial list of requirements for CST (Warr, 2007). These requirements have been refined and explored when applied to the evaluation of creativity support tools, such as the EDC (Warr & O'Neill, 2007) and PSPD.

High-level requirement 1: Support the creation and dissemination of externalisations to support the phases of the creative process.

Requirement 1.1: Creativity support tools should support the creation of sketches.
Requirement 1.2: Creativity support tools should support the annotation of sketches.
Requirement 1.3: Creativity support tools should support the creation of text.
Requirement 1.4: Creativity support tools should support usersí pointing interactions with externalisations.
Requirement 1.5: Creativity support tools should support usersí gesture interactions with externalisations.
Requirement 1.6: Creativity support tools should support the generation of new ideas: divergent thinking.
Requirement 1.7: Creativity support tools should support the refinement of ideas: convergent thinking.
Requirement 1.8: Creativity support tools should not constrain the way users externalise their ideas.
Requirement 1.9: Creativity support tools should provide users with an unobstructed solution space.
Requirement 1.10: Creativity support tools should allow users to change the orientation and position of an externalisation and/or the creativity support tool.
Requirement 1.11: Creativity support tools should support the combination of previously generated ideas.
Requirement 1.12: Creativity support tools should support the storage and protection of externalisations created throughout the creative process.
Requirement 1.13: Creativity support tools should support the comparison of generated ideas.

High-level requirement 2: Support the various compositions of a group using appropriately sized interaction spaces.

Requirement 2.1: Creativity support tools should support individual activities using small interaction spaces.
Requirement 2.2: Creativity support tools should support sub-group activities using interaction spaces that create a sense of social inclusion.
Requirement 2.3: Creativity support tools should support group activities using large interaction spaces.
Requirement 2.4: Creativity support tools should support the transitions between individual, sub-group and group activities.
Requirement 2.5: Creativity support tools should support creative activities beyond the meeting room.

High-level requirement 3: Support the control of social influences.

Requirement 3.1: Creativity support tools should support synchronous forms of interaction, thereby reducing the effects of production blocking.
Requirement 3.2: Creativity support tools should support multiple inputs, thereby reducing the effects of production blocking.
Requirement 3.3: Creativity support tools should support the removal of a userís identity from their ideas, thereby reducing the effects of evaluation apprehension.
Requirement 3.4: Creativity support tools should support individual/private interactions, thereby reducing the effects of evaluation apprehension and free-riding.
Requirement 3.5: Creativity support tools should make individuals accountable for their own productivity, thereby reducing the effects of free-riding.

References:

Warr, A. (2007). Understanding and Supporting Creativity in Design. PhD Thesis, University of Bath, UK. June, 2007.

Warr, A. & O'Neill, E. (2005) Understanding Design as a Social Creative Process. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Creativity & Cognition, London, UK, April 2005, 118-127.

Warr, A. & O'Neill, E. (2007). Tool Support for Creativity using Externalisations, Creatvity and Cognition 2007, 13 - 15 June 2007, Washington D.C., USA.

Last modified 23 July 2007 at 3:03 pm by andywarr