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The STRONG prototype will activate learners' existing domain knowledge as they advance through different levels of the game. The learning goals for STRONG are the ideas and skills outlined in Science for All Americans and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy. These learning goals for the beginner, intermediate, proficient, and advanced levels in STRONG correspond to the primary, P, (K-2), elementary, E, (3-5), middle, M, (5-8), & high, H, (9-12) grades in the Benchmarks.

For example, to decode the Benchmark 4F/E2, click on 4. The Physical Setting, F. Motion, and then look at the second bullet in Kindergarten through Grade 2 to find E2 in the Benchmarks for Science Literacy.

Force Motion Energy Materials
Beginner The way to change how something is moving is to give it a push or a pull. 4F/E2 Things move in many different ways, such as straight, zig zag, round and round, back and forth, and fast and slow. 4F/E1

Things near the earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up. 4G/P1
The sun warms the land, air, and water. 4E/P1 Some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing. Materials that are better in some ways (such as stronger or cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier or harder to cut). 8B/P1

Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task. 12C/P3
Intermediate The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be . . . 4F/P1

The earth's gravity pulls any object (on or near the earth) toward it without touching it. 4G/P1
Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces. 4F/P1 . . . Many events involve transfer of energy from one object to another. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. 12C/E1
Proficient An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or direction of motion, or both. 4F/M3. . .
If a force acts towards a single center, the object's path may curve into an orbit around the center. . .4F/M3

Everything on or anywhere near the earth is pulled toward the earth's center by gravitational force. 4B/M3
The motion of an object is always judged with respect to some other object or point. 10A/M1 . . .

The sun's gravitational pull holds the earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the plants's gravitatinal pull keeps their moons in orbit around them. 4G/M2
Energy apperas in different forms. Motion energy is associated with the speed of an object. Heat energy is associated with the temperature of an object. Gravitational energy is associated with the height of an object above a reference point. Elastic energy is associated with the stretching of an elastic object. Chemical energy is associated with the chemical composition of a substance. Within a system, energy can be transformed from one form to another. 4E/M4 The choice of materials for a job depends on their properties and on how they interact with other materials. 8B/M1 . . .
Advanced The change in motion (direction or sped) of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportioinal to the mass. 4F/H1

Whenever one thing exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it. 4F/H4

Gravitational force is an attraction between masses. The strength of the force is proportional to the masses and weakens rapidly with increasing distance between them. 4G/H1
All motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen, for there is no motionless frame from which to judge all motion. 4F/H2

Any object maintains a constand speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it. SFAA, p. 53

In most familiar situations, frictional forces complicate the description of motion, although the basic principles still apply. SFAA, p. 53
Although the various forms of energy appear very different, each can be measured in a way that makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form is converted into another. Whenever the amount of energy in one place diminishes, the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount. SFAA, p. 50 & 4E/H1 Scientific research identifies new materials and new uses of known materials. 8B/H3

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